Huwebes, Hulyo 7, 2011

animal and plant toxins

A substance produced within living organisms and cells which are poisonous and are capable of causing diseases are called toxins. This term was first used by an organic chemist Ludwig Brieger. These toxins are considered separately since they are from different origins. 

Recently, a research shows that common plant toxins have been found in smoke from forest fires affect human health and the ecosystem. These toxins are called the alkaloids- found in a plant known as the Ponderosa pines as it burns. A variety of natural compounds released from the plant matter has been seen through tiny particles. This is said to be one of the many plant toxins that may pose harm to mankind. Other plant toxins include: cyanogens found in Cassava roots, gossypol from cotton seeds and phyto- oestrogens that are usually found in clover and soybeans, amanita phalloides from mushrooms. These toxins can cause diseases of the skin, gastrointestinal tract, cardiovascular system, nervous system, reproductive system and the liver.

With the diverse types of naturally occurring toxins of the animals, the orion proteins of the mammalian meat and bone meal recently emerged as essential food contaminants. A harmless animal tissue components having the capacity to transform themselves to become agents that can possibly cause fatal neurological lesions in a wide range species. The bovine spongiform encephalopathy is a major disease of cattle in the United Kingdom has become significant in identifying these prions.  As to this is the human equivalent - new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). The incidence of vCJD in humans has been linked to the consumption of BSE-infected beef. Other examples of toxins from animals include: insects, snakes, lizards, fish and frogs, and the commonly known arachnids- spiders, ticks and scorpions. 


Martes, Hunyo 14, 2011


As I live my life day by day
My body works in simple ways
With its different parts
Oh well, its true!
They really function for me and you

One is the greatest Pituitary Gland
Located in the brain of every human
Such secretes several hormones
And this is how the action goes…
We’ll start of first with these two hormones
FSH and LH- that makes a woman blow
A blow that signals the sperm to go
So that a baby will soon follow

Next is the mom’s problem on lactation
That’s why the body asks of this hormone
This is called the Prolactin
Which facilitates the milk- making

Then the ACTH has its own way
On how to help the body stay
Stay on how it’s supposed to be
Salt, sugar and sex- a balance with these three!

When you need something to be done
Ask pituitary to release one
Thyroid hormone, that would be
Fuelled by TSH essentially

Lastly is the one I love
Who I think everybody wants
It is the Growth Hormone that helps us grow
Especially if released in proper dose :)

This is one of the functions I know
That takes place inside of you
Something that is so important
And you should know the worth of such!

Martes, Mayo 17, 2011



Endocrinology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the endocrine system and its specific secretions called hormones. It includes the study of hormones, their receptors, the intracellular signalling pathways they invoke, and the diseases and conditions associated with them. In the practice of medicine, this is often paired with the study of diabetes and metabolism. Another common pairing of endocrinology is with reproductive medicine and infertility. An Endocrinologist is a doctor who specializes in treating such disorders. They  treat disorders of the pituitary, including growth disorders; diseases of the thyroid; diseases of the adrenal glands; diseases of the ovary and testes; and diabetes, a disorder of insulin secretion or sensitivity

The field of endocrinology is rapidly changing, as new therapies and diagnostic methods make their mark and as new research add to our understanding of the optimal treatment of conditions such as diabetes, osteoporosis, and thyroid disease.


Toxicology is the study of dynamic interaction of chemicals with living systems. In a broader sense, it has something to do with the study of the adverse effects of chemical, physical or biological agents on people, animals, and the environment. It is also the workhorse science of numerous industries and regulatory agencies—from those involved with development and regulation of food additives to those involved with the use and remediation of hazardous chemicals. While toxicologists are the scientists trained to investigate, interpret, and communicate the nature of those effects.

Before drug candidates can be tested in human studies, preclinical toxicology studies determine the dose at which the drug candidate has toxic effects. Typically, animals are dosed with the drug candidate until a toxic effect is observed. Using standard light microscope-based histology, the toxic lesions are studied in an effort to explain the toxicological event. If light microscopy does not reveal the nature of the lesion then more in-depth studies using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are needed.


Drug test is an examination of biologic material such as urine, hair, saliva, or sweat, to detect the presence of specific drugs and determine prior drug use. Drug tests may be performed to detect illegal drug use as well as the use of drugs and substances not permitted in specific occupations or athletic competitions. This is also known as drug screen.

Drug abuse testing by blood, urine, saliva or any other method (except forensic hair analysis) is designed only to detect whether or not a specific drug or drug metabolite is present at the time the test is performed. While there are very broad estimates as to how long a particular drug may have been in the syste. It is said that no drug test, regardless of method, is intended to include a time variable. Many factors unique to the individual being tested determine the actual half-life of the particular drug including such variables as age, weight, body fat index, sex, metabolic rate, overall health and amount of drug consumed over what period of time. Therefore, no conclusions can be drawn as to when a particular drug was taken or how much was consumed with any type of drug abuse test. If it is desired to screen for historical drug use, a forensic laboratory hair analysis test is available that will screen for illicit drug use up to 90 days dependent on hair sample length.